Acqua Vergine: The Solution to Rome's Water Troubles

Acqua Vergine: The Solution to Rome's Water TroublesAcqua Vergine: Solution Rome's Water Troubles 131721410838080.jpg Prior to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was constructed in Rome, citizens who resided on hillsides had to go even further down to collect their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people dwelling at higher elevations turned to water pulled from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. To deliver water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they applied the emerging approach of redirecting the flow from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. During its initial building and construction, pozzi (or manholes) were positioned at set intervals alongside the aqueduct’s channel. The manholes made it more straightforward to maintain the channel, but it was also achievable to use buckets to pull water from the aqueduct, as we discovered with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he owned the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he passed away. He didn’t get an adequate amount water from the cistern that he had manufactured on his property to gather rainwater. To provide himself with a more practical means to gather water, he had one of the manholes opened, providing him access to the aqueduct below his property.

Outdoor Fountains: The Minoan Culture

Outdoor Fountains: The Minoan CultureOutdoor Fountains: Minoan Culture 80574097038708.jpg Fountains and Water and the Minoan Civilization These furnished water and eliminated it, including water from waste and deluges. They were commonly built from clay or rock. Anytime clay was used, it was frequently for channels as well as water pipes which came in rectangle-shaped or spherical patterns. These consisted of cone-like and U-shaped clay pipes which were exclusive to the Minoans. Terracotta conduits were utilized to circulate water at Knossos Palace, running up to three meters directly below the floor surfaces. The piping also had other functions such as collecting water and channeling it to a centralized site for storing. Thus, these pipelines had to be able to: Below ground Water Transportation: This system’s hidden nature may suggest that it was initially planned for some kind of ritual or to distribute water to limited communities. Quality Water Transportation: Many historians think that these pipelines were used to generate a separate distribution process for the residence.

Contemporary Statues in Early Greece

Contemporary Statues in Early Greece Historically, most sculptors were paid by the temples to embellish the involved pillars and archways with renderings of the gods, however as the era came to a close it grew to be more accepted for sculptors to present ordinary people as well simply because many Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred. Wealthy individuals would sometimes commission a rendering of their ancestors for their large family burial tombs; portraiture additionally became prevalent and would be appropriated by the Romans upon their acquisition of Greek society. A point of aesthetic development, the use of sculpture and other art forms morphed through the Greek Classical period, so it is inexact to suggest that the arts served only one function. Greek sculpture is perhaps enticing to us nowadays as it was an avant-garde experiment in the historic world, so it does not matter whether or not its original function was religious zeal or artistic enjoyment.

Anglo Saxon Landscapes at the Time of the Norman Conquest

Anglo Saxon Landscapes at the Time of the Norman Conquest The introduction of the Normans in the second half of the eleventh century irreparably improved The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle.Anglo Saxon Landscapes Time Norman Conquest 09107231542841052478.jpg At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. But before concentrating on home-life or having the occasion to think about domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire society. Monasteries and castles served separate purposes, so while monasteries were massive stone structures assembled in only the most productive, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the occupants focused on understanding offensive and defensive techniques. Relaxing pursuits such as gardening were out of place in these destitute citadels. Berkeley Castle, maybe the most unspoiled model of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists now. The keep is rumored to have been created during the time of William the Conqueror. A monumental terrace serves as a hindrance to invaders who would attempt to mine the walls of the building. On one of these parapets is a picturesque bowling green covered in grass and bordered by an aged hedge of yew that has been shaped into coarse battlements.

The Attraction of Simple Garden Decor: The Wall fountain

The Attraction of Simple Garden Decor: The Wall fountain It is also feasible to locate your garden water fountain near a wall since they do not need to be connected to a nearby pond. Digging, installing and cleaning a nearby pond are no longer needed. Plumbing is no longer necessary since this feature in now self-sufficient. Do not forget, however, to put in water at consistent intervals. Remove the water from the basin and place clear water in its place when you see that the spot is unclean.

Stone and metal are most common elements used to construct garden wall fountains even though they can be manufactured from other materials as well.Attraction Simple Garden Decor: Wall fountain 97689729411.jpg The style you are looking for determines which material is most appropriate to meet your needs. Outdoor wall fountains come in many models and sizes, therefore ensure that the design you decide to purchase is hand-crafted, easy to hang and lightweight. Ensure that your fountain is manageable as far as maintenance is concerned. Even though installing certain fountains can be difficult, the majority take little effort because the only parts which need special care are the re-circulating pump and the equipment to hang them. You can easily perk up your outdoor area with these types of fountains.

The City Of Rome, Gian Bernini, And Water Features

City Rome, Gian Bernini, Water Features 214474774569558806.jpg The City Of Rome, Gian Bernini, And Water Features There are countless popular water fountains in the city center of Rome. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, one of the finest sculptors and artists of the 17th century planned, conceived and produced virtually all of them. He was also a urban designer, in addition to his skills as a water fountain developer, and records of his life's work are noticeable all through the streets of Rome. Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son, and they ultimately moved to Rome, in order to fully express their art, primarily in the form of public water fountains and water features. An excellent employee, the young Bernini received compliments and the backing of many popes and important artists. At the beginning he was renowned for his sculptural expertise. An authority in ancient Greek architecture, he used this knowledge as a foundation and melded it flawlessly with Roman marble, most remarkably in the Vatican. Though many artists had an impact on his work, Michelangelo had the most profound effect.

Brief Outline of Herb Gardening

Brief Outline of Herb GardeningBrief Outline Herb Gardening 843381012.jpg A lot of gardeners find that they are driven to learning more about herbal plants as they are easy to grow and fun to use in cooking. You will get immediate gratification when you grow natural herbs in the garden as they can be included in preparing sauces, soups, marinades and a number of other recipes. While you may presume you have to get out and prune every day with an herb garden this is not true, but even better you can keep it going all 12 months long by moving your pots indoors in the fall. Since perennial natural herbs do not die easily or require replanting every end of the year, they are a practical (and fun) addition to your garden. Over and above this, you should give consideration to your personal taste preferences when choosing herbs to flavor dinners. Take into account the meals you desire when selecting which herbs to plant in your garden. For instance, if you cook a lot of Italian food you may want to grow basil and oregano. If you like Latin food, choose cilantro. It is relevant to identify where your herbs will be cultivated in order to decide which herbs will thrive. If you live in a mild climate, with warm winters and relatively cool summers, it may be easiest to plant straight into the ground. This makes your yard look stunning without the problem of making or buying planters. If you don't want to your plants to perish or become dormant after being subjected to overwhelming weather conditions, you can always rely on planters. They are practical and convenient and you can transfer indoors at any time.

Outdoor Fountains A Definition

Outdoor Fountains A Definition The description of a water feature is a large component which has water flowing in or through it. A simple suspended fountain or an elaborate courtyard tiered fountain are just two varieties from the wide range of articles available. Since they are so variable, these decorative elements can be situated either in your backyard or inside your home. Water elements include ponds and pools as well.

Living spaces including extensive yards, yoga studios, relaxing verandas, apartment balconies, or office settings are great areas to add a water feature such as a garden wall fountain. There is nothing better to comfort you while also activating your senses of sight and hearing than the pleasurable sounds of gently flowing water in your fountain. Their aesthetically pleasing form accentuates the interior design of any room. You can also have fun watching the striking water display, experience the serenity, and reduce any undesirable noises with the soothing sounds of water.

The Multiple Kinds of Wall Water Fountains

The Multiple Kinds of Wall Water Fountains Having a wall fountain in your garden or on a terrace is fantastic when you wish to relax.Multiple Kinds Wall Water Fountains 677313331111.jpg You can have one custom-built to fit your specifications even if you have a minimum amount of space. A spout, a water basin, internal piping, and a pump are necessary for freestanding as well as mounted types. You have many styles to a lot to pick from whether you are looking for a traditional, modern, classical, or Asian style.

Also knownas a floor fountain, a stand-alone wall fountain is normally rather large, and its basin is placed on the ground.

You can decide to place your wall-mounted feature on an preexisting wall or build it into a new wall. A unified look can be achieved with this style of fountain because it seems to become part of the landscape rather than an added element.

A Brief History of the Early Public Garden Fountains

A Brief History of the Early Public Garden Fountains Villages and villages depended on working water fountains to channel water for cooking, washing, and cleaning up from local sources like lakes, channels, or springs. Gravity was the power source of water fountains up until the end of the nineteenth century, using the forceful power of water traveling down hill from a spring or brook to squeeze the water through spigots or other outlets. The beauty and wonder of fountains make them perfect for traditional memorials. When you see a fountain today, that is certainly not what the first water fountains looked like. Created for drinking water and ceremonial purposes, the 1st fountains were very simple carved stone basins. 2,000 B.C. is when the earliest identified stone fountain basins were actually used.Brief History Early Public Garden Fountains 5944275035048083.jpg The force of gravity was the power source that operated the initial water fountains. Situated near aqueducts or creeks, the practical public water fountains supplied the local population with fresh drinking water. The Romans began constructing decorative fountains in 6 BC, most of which were bronze or natural stone masks of creatures and mythological heroes. A well-designed collection of reservoirs and aqueducts kept Rome's public water fountains supplied with fresh water.

Outdoor Water Features Come in Many Shapes and Sizes

Outdoor Water Features Come in Many Shapes and Sizes Convert your garden into what you have always wished for – a haven of peace. Add a feeling of tranquility to your garden with an exterior fountain and avail yourself of all the positive effects of a water feature.

Sending a stream of water shooting into the air, spouting fountains leave a spectacular impression. It is possible to have one of these installed into an existent, ample pond.Outdoor  Water Features Come Many Shapes Sizes 372037038.jpg These types of fountains are often found in parks or historical manor homes.

Wall fountains are an excellent example of outdoor wall features. Even with a smallish backyard, it is feasible to put in one of these water features. Wall fountains are not flamboyant water features as compared to a spouting fountain. In this straightforward process, water is ejected from a little spout, goes down a wonderfully textured wall, before being recovered at the bottom and returned to the top once again.

Themed fountains are perfect when the style of your yard allows for them. If your bungalow or garden is styled in a rustic manner, you should consider adding a traditional type of statue, such as a seraph holding the spout, to your fountain. On the other hand, a more modern yard can include more of a bold design. Let your imagination run free to choose the best option.

Tiered fountains are alluring because the water flows down multiple levels. Due to the water streaming down its various levels, these are also called cascading fountains.

The space required for an outdoor fountain can be considerable, therefore, a better alternative is to install a wall fountain or a pondless fountain. Install one of these fountains if your space is limited since their reservoirs are hidden from sight underground.

Serenity and well-being are some of the chief sensations imparted by Japanese fountains. The water flows through bamboo sticks in this type of water feature. Water then streams into a container or a shaped stone, only to repeat the cycle over and over again.

Glass fountains make up another group of fountain. Producing a more classical appearance are trellis-style fountains which showcase shaped metalwork. However, this type of water feature is better suited to backyard gardens with many sharp corners as well as contemporary forms and design. A wondrous effect is created when water flows down the sheets of glass. LED lights are also used in some fountains to flash color across the water as it flows down on the glass sheet. Often made of imitation rock, stone waterfall fountains have water gently trickling down its surface.

Bubbling rock fountains are big rocks drilled with holes which are then filled with pipes in the center. Low pressure is used to spout out the water which then bubbles and gurgles at the top. The water comes back gently dripping down the sides of the rock to get to its starting point. Gardens with limited space are good areas to include this style of fountain. To ensure that water is not sprayed around if it begins to get windy, this kind of fountain is the best choice since it only uses low pressure to move water.

Solar driven fountains have become more fashionable recently since they run on sunlight. There are numerous reasons for this newly found interest such as the absence of cables, less difficulty in running them, a decrease in electricity bills, and the benefits to the environment. The numerous designs in outdoor solar-run fountains means you will not have to compromise on style.

Bernini’s Early Italian Fountains

Bernini’s Early Italian Fountains 958766010481813455.jpg Bernini’s Early Italian Fountains One can find Bernini's earliest masterpiece, the Barcaccia water fountain, at the base of the Trinita dei Monti in Piaza di Spagna. To this day, this spot is filled with Roman locals and travelers alike who enjoy debate and each other's company. Today, the city streets surrounding Bernini's fountain are a trendy area where people go to meet, something which the artist would have been pleased to learn. Dating back to around 1630, Pope Urbano VIII mandated what was to be the very first water fountain of the master's career. Depicted in the fountain's design is a great vessel slowly sinking into the Mediterranean Sea. Period reports dating back to the 16th century show that the fountain was built as a monument to those who lost their lives in the great flooding of the Tevere. In 1665 Bernini traveled to France, in what was to be his sole lengthy absence from Italy.

Garden Water fountains: The Perfect Decor Accessory to Find Peace

Garden Water fountains: The Perfect Decor Accessory to Find PeaceGarden Water fountains: Perfect Decor Accessory Find Peace 15911538.jpg You can find peace and tranquility by just having water in your garden. The noises in your neighborhood and surrounding area will be masked with the soothing sounds of a fountain. This is a great spot to relax and experience the natural world near you. Many therapies use water as a recuperation element, going to places such as the seaside and rivers for their treatments. So if you want a tiny piece of heaven nearby, a pond or fountain in your own garden is the answer.

The Root of Modern Outdoor Wall Fountains

The Root of Modern Outdoor Wall FountainsRoot  Modern Outdoor Wall Fountains 3060710308014428.jpg The translation of hundreds of ancient Greek texts into Latin was commissioned by the scholarly Pope Nicholas V who ruled the Church in Rome from 1397 till 1455. Beautifying Rome and making it the worthy capital of the Christian world was at the heart of his objectives. Reconstruction of the Acqua Vergine, a ruined Roman aqueduct which had transported fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away, began in 1453 at the behest of the Pope. A mostra, a monumental dedicatory fountain constructed by ancient Romans to mark the point of entry of an aqueduct, was a custom which was restored by Nicholas V. The Trevi Fountain now occupies the area previously filled with a wall fountain built by Leon Battista Albert, an architect employed by the Pope. The aqueduct he had reconditioned included modifications and extensions which eventually enabled it to supply water to the Trevi Fountain as well as the renowned baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona.

Modern Garden Decor: Large Outdoor Water Fountains and their Roots

Modern Garden Decor: Large Outdoor Water Fountains and their Roots The incredible construction of a fountain allows it to provide clean water or shoot water high into air for dramatic effect and it can also serve as an excellent design feature to enhance your home.

The primary purpose of a fountain was originally strictly functional. Cities, towns and villages made use of nearby aqueducts or springs to provide them with potable water as well as water where they could bathe or wash. Up to the late nineteenth century, water fountains had to be near an aqueduct or reservoir and more elevated than the fountain so that gravity could make the water flow down or jet high into the air. Designers thought of fountains as amazing additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to supply clean water and honor the artist responsible for building it.Modern Garden Decor: Large Outdoor Water Fountains Roots 82072040255.jpg Roman fountains often depicted imagery of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden planners incorporated fountains to create smaller depictions of the gardens of paradise. The fountains found in the Gardens of Versailles were intended to show the power over nature held by King Louis XIV of France. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts arrived in the city of Rome

The end of the 19th century saw the increase in usage of indoor plumbing to provide drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to purely decorative elements. The creation of unique water effects and the recycling of water were two things made possible by replacing gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains adorn public areas and are used to pay tribute to individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

Look at the Advantages of an Indoor Wall Water Feature

Look at the Advantages of an Indoor Wall Water Feature Clinics and health care facilities have been using interior fountains to create tranquil, stress-free environments for many years now. The relaxing effect of flowing water can be conducive to a contemplative state.

Moreover, healing seems to go more quickly when water features are included as part of the healing process. According to many doctors and therapists, patients are thought to recover more quickly when these are added to the treatment plan. PTSD patients as well as those struggling with severe insomnia are thought to feel better after hearing the calming, gentle trickle of water.

A feeling of security and well-being is enhanced, according to research, when you include an wall fountain in your home. As humans we are naturally pulled by the sight and sound of water, both of which contribute to our well-being and the preservation of our environment.

Feng-shui is an ancient school of thought which claims that water is one of two essential components in our lives which has the ability to transform us. The main tenets of feng-shui claim that we can achieve serenity and harmony by harmonizing the interior elements in our surroundings. Our homes need to contain some kind of water element.Look Advantages Indoor Wall Water Feature 883003224.jpg The ideal spot to set up a fountain is close to your home’s entranceway or in front of it.

You and your loved ones will no doubt benefit from the inclusion of a water wall in your home, whether it be a wall mounted waterfall, a freestanding water feature or a custom-built one. Many reports claim that a fountain positioned in a central living area makes people more cheerful, satisfied, and relaxed than those who do not have a fountain in the house.

The Wide Array of Designs of Wall Water Fountains

The Wide Array of Designs of Wall Water Fountains If you want to have a place to relax as well as add some pizzazz to a small area such as a patio or courtyard, wall fountains are perfect because they do not occupy much space. Traditional, antique, modern, or Asian are just some of the designs you can pick from when looking for an outdoor wall fountain to your liking. It is possible to have one customized if you are not able to find a prefabricated fountain to suit you.

There are two distinct sorts of fountains you can buy: mounted and free-standing. Mounted wall fountains are small and self-contained versions which can be hung on a wall. Wall fountains made of resin ( similar to stone) or fiberglass are normally lightweight so they can be easily hung. Floor fountains are freestanding, sizable, and also have a basin on the floor as well as a flat side against the wall. Typically made of cast stone, this kind of water feature is not limited in weight.

Many experienced landscapers favor custom-built fountains which can be integrated into a brand-new wall or an existing one. Employing an expert mason is your best option to construct the basin and install the necessary plumbing. The wall will have to have a spout or fountain mask built into it. The unified look produced by custom-made wall fountains make them appear to be part of the landscape instead of an afterthought.

What Are Large Garden Fountains Crafted From?

Large Garden Fountains Crafted From? 368328601169.jpg What Are Large Garden Fountains Crafted From? Garden fountains these days are commonly made from metal, though you can find them in other materials too. Those made from metals have clean lines and attractive sculptural elements, and are versatile enough to fit any budget and decor. It is very important that your landscape reflects the style of your home.

At present, copper is quite prevalent for sculptural garden fountains. Copper fountains are the ideal option because they are perfect for the inside and outside. If you choose to go with copper, your fountain can be any style from fun and whimsical to contemporary.

If you are drawn to more conventional -looking water fountains, brass is probably what you want. Even though they are a bit old-fashioned, brass fountains are quite widespread because they often incorporate interesting artwork.

The most contemporary metal right now is definitely stainless steel. For an instant increase in the value and serenity of your garden, get one of the contemporary steel designs. As with most fountains, they are available in many sizes.

Fiberglass is a widely used material for fountains because you can get the look and feel of metal at a much lower price, and it is lightweight and easier to move than metal. Keeping a fiberglass water fountain clean and working correctly is quite effortless, another aspect consumers love.

The Intriguing Beauty of Wall Water Fountains

Intriguing Beauty Wall Water Fountains 499371256611533.jpg The Intriguing Beauty of Wall Water Fountains A wall fountain can be an important design element in your home or office, enough so that it makes a good impression on your family and friends alike. In addition to the calming background sounds a wall water feature contributes to any living space, it also imparts beauty. Think of the positive effects it will have on guests when they experience its wondrous sights and sounds.

Wall elements are a good option if the space you reside in is more modern in appearance. Stainless steel or glass are two of the materials used to construct modern-day types which add a stylish component to your room decoration. Is the floor space in your residence or business scarce? A wall water fountain is probably the best option for you. Since they are hung on a wall you can save your precious real estate for something else. You may note that many bustling office lobbies have fountains. Wall fountains are not restricted to inside use, however. Exterior wall water features can be manufactured of fiberglass or resin. Liven up your veranda, courtyard, or other outdoor areas with a water fountain made of these water-resistant materials.

There is wide assortment of unique styles in wall fountains running from the contemporary to classic and rustic. The type most suitable for your living space depends entirely on your personal design ideas. A city dweller’s decor ideas might call for polished glass whereas a mountaineer might choose a more traditional material such as slate for a mountain lodge. You can select the material most suited to your needs. Fountains are features which most certainly impress people who visit your home.

The Many Construction Materials of Landscape Fountains Garden fountains today are typically made from metal, although you can find them in other materials too.Metallic fountains, with their clean lines and sculptural accents, exist in in a range of metals and can accommodate any style or budget.... read more


The Countless Construction Materials of Wall fountains Though they come in alternative materials, today’s garden fountains tend to be made of metal.Those made from metals have clean lines and unique sculptural elements, and are flexible enough to fit any budget and decor.... read more


Outdoor Fountains And Their Use In Crete & Minoa Archaeological digs in Minoan Crete in Greece have exposed varied varieties of conduits.They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater.... read more


Short Outline of Herb Gardening An Introduction to Containers Gardening & Herbal Plants.These plants are easy to grow and have the appeal of instant gratification, as they can be used in soups, marinades, and other recipes.... read more


The Dissemination of Water Fountain Design Knowledge The circulated reports and illustrated publications of the day contributed to the advancements of scientific technology, and were the chief means of transmitting practical hydraulic concepts and water feature ideas all through Europe.... read more